Congratulations to our 2020 Y12/Y13 Essay Winners!
1st Prize. Grace Dunn. Is the dominance of Ibadism in Oman the main factor that has allowed for a sustained tolerance within the country?
2nd Prize. Abdillah Masoud. Zanzibar and Oman: A Lasting Connection
3rd Prize. Sara Al Lawati. Two Golden Eras.
The winning essay received a £300 prize and a free year's subscription to The Arab Digest. The winning Essay will also be published in both the 2021 AOS Annual Review and the next edition of The Arab Digest
Is the dominance of Ibadism in Oman the main factor that has allowed for a sustained tolerance within the country?
Oman is a country balanced in the cross-section between traditional religious beliefs and advances in modernity. It has progressed over the late 20th century into a Sultanate that is internationally respected for its internal peaceful relations between a diverse plethora of religious and ethnic minorities. Being the only nation which has an Ibadi majority, and thus large Sunni and Shi’a minorities, it is exempt from the well known conflicts that other Arab administrations and non-state performers are partial to, as well as maintaining a steady understanding of other religions. The dominance of Ibadism has contributed to the high level of tolerance seen within Oman, whereby anyone who is not an Ibadi Muslim is allowed to openly practice their culture and religion within limits, although this permittance of peaceful co-existance is not to be confused with open celebration of additional religions and Islamic sects. Under the late Sultan Qaboos bin Said, the education system and opportunities it has provided has been radically reformed. The Sultanate itself runs on a system which has allowed for modernisation whilst also conserving its cultural and religious traditions. Domestic and international development has progressed greatly since 1970, however it has ultimately been down to the people to accept the reformations presented; Omani culture and behavioral customs, intertwined with Ibadism, has created the foundation for social and political development, and with that an established tolerance.
Ibadi ideology centralises on the belief that the Qur’an was the word of God specifically designed for the Prophet and his immediate followers to understand at the time, and thus they believe that its message should not be held with the same weight in the modern day, and that it should be interpreted within circumstantial context. This founding of thought has therefore allowed Ibadi Muslims a much more open response to changing times and circumstances as well as a greater tolerance towards not only other Islamic sects, but religions. Furthermore, Ibadism shares beliefs with both Shi’a and Sunni sects which gives them the ability to connect with both as well as acting as a middle ground between the two. Thus, Oman, as the world’s only Ibadi majority nation, does not have the same stakes in the Sunni-Shi’a conflicts which have proven to be a prime justification for armed conflict in recent years, as many of the other Arab administrations, and non-state performers do. Ibadi neutrality within religious conflicts has allowed for a practical approach to global politics as seen in its continuous provisions of humanitarian aid to Yemen, in addition to mediating peace talks between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. In addition, the more liberal interpretation of the Qur’an naturally leans away from fundamentalism and towards modern development and a slow evolution of political, social and economic landscapes both within the country as well as globally.
Oman’s international stance of “active neutralisation” has also been applied to domestic affairs; from 1965-1975 there were large amounts of insurgents, poverty, harsh restrictions, and a lack of modern structure which called for domestic reformation in order for it to be taken seriously internationally as a neutral party. Sultan Qaboos’ reformations starting in 1970 slowly dissipated these issues and by extension of improving internal policies, Oman’s external appearance and role of neutrality between the Euro-Atlantic Zone, the Gulf Cooperation Committee (GCC) and Iran, was consolidated. Thus, global and domestic neutrality go hand in hand, and without a sustained and stability of internal affairs, Oman’s active neutrality would not be applicable internationally. Its Ibadi majority, in practicality, has kept it out of Sunni-Shi’a conflicts and thus has allowed it to mediate between the GCC and Iran as well as sustaining a coexistence of all three Islamic sects domestically. The freedom of religious expression and additional culture has developed a diverse community which has allowed for a sustainable sentiment of tolerance by all who live there. The neutrality of Ibadism in Sunni-Shi’a conflicts has enabled Oman to mediate both domestically and regionally whilst simultaneously aiding or developing areas in need.
In the successful coup against his father with the aid of Britain, Sultan Qaboos bin Said began slow reformations of Oman with the purpose of modernisation in an ‘evolutionary’ process. One of the most substantial changes was the academic curriculum; Oman went from almost no schools to over a thousand, including a university, within 25 years. The newly founded Ministry of Education in 1971, took on the task of establishing a new academic curriculum that combined religious and historical framework with modern studies and proscribed a similar level of compulsory schooling as other Arab nations had at the time. Islamic studies were made compulsory from the first grade through to the twelfth, and was designed to promote unity and avoid secularism, thus the curriculum focused on the common beliefs of all Muslims and not on any particular beliefs held in either Sunni, Shi’a or Ibadi schools of thought. In comparison to the Bahraini academic curriculum, where religious beliefs and the educational system have clashed, causing discomfort for the Shi’a minority community, Ibadi dominance in Oman has allowed for the creation of a religious and secular curriculum without friction or discomfort within minority sects. This unity of education in both modernity and religion has neutralised sect differences within Islamic studies, and has actively encouraged the participation of both genders up to, and including university education. Academia, with Ibadism at the forefront of its designing, has overtly been responsible for sustaining sentiments of tolerance in Oman. Furthermore, the exposure that children have received through the education system to both their traditions as well as modern subjects has encouraged open attitudes not just to other religions and nationalities, but also progressive modernisation.
Due to the Omani people’s ‘ideology of politeness’, expressions of tolerance towards others are deemed essential to a person's honour. The Basic Law, established in 1999, allows for other religions and Islamic sects to practice and build places of worship openly, although there are still limitations; religious buildings must be built on land allocated by the Sultan, and religious festivals must be practiced within those buildings (with the permission of the Sultan) and not publicly in order to avoid civil upset and unrest. Thus, Arab, Iranian and Indian cultures and nationalities can confront each other as complete alternative schemes of existence within Oman, and therefore have the ability to co-exist alongside each other. Local Omani people claim themselves to be ‘non-conscientious’; their culture contains formalities and a customary code of honour regarding public behavior which inhibits the articulation of a person's worth, or criticism about another. It is due to their customs of courtesy, as well as the passing of the Basic Law that has allowed for expressions of nationality and religion within reason. The limitations and strict customs of behavioral conduct within Omani culture, has allowed for a sustained sentiment of tolerance towards additional sect beliefs and sacred practices.
Ultimately, Ibadism, nestled within traditional culture, is the foundation of tolerance within Oman; its thought is a large aspect of customs and tradition seen in the local culture. Whilst it is a direct influence on the willingness of the people to embrace modernisation, Ibadi ideology alone is not enough to justify the sustained position of tolerance that the country enjoys. This comes from the concept of Ibadism being a sect of Islam that exists and survives outside of the Sunni-Shi’a rivalry; it is thus a catalyst for promoting peace, as its differences allow neutral mediation, but its Islamic identity along with certain religious beliefs and practices allow for commonalities. It is this understanding of the function of the Ibadi majority within Oman that has enabled Sultan Qaboos’ reformations within the educational sector to be well received and thus promoting a peaceful coexistence within the Islamic and national majority and minorities. The understanding of modern theories and other religions and sects provided by a religiously inclusive, modern academic curriculum for all children, has decreased Oman’s tolerance for intolerance. The educational system, along with cultural behavior, and additionally tolerance enforced by the Basic Law have all been the result of the neutrality of Ibadism in religious feuds and their ideology. Therefore, overall, Oman is responsible for the sustained attitudes of tolerance which reflect the country’s international policy of ‘active neutralisation’. It’s peaceful internal and external relations provides one of the greatest examples of how a country can, and has, successfully floruised in modernity and tradition simultaneously.
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Sebastian Castelier, ‘Oman’s Humanitarian Aid to Yemen Also Pragmatic’, Al-Monitor, Jan 9, 2020.
Qabus, Sultan, and Judith Miller. “Creating Modern Oman: An Interview with Sultan Qabus.” Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 3, 1997, pp. 13–18. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20048028.
Allen, Calvin H, and W L. Rigsbee. Oman Under Qaboos: From Coup to Constitution, 1970-1996. London: Frank Cass, 2000. Print.
AL-SALIMI, ABDULRAHMAN. “The Transformation of Religious Learning in Oman: Tradition and Modernity.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 21, no. 2, 2011, pp. 147–157. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23011490.
Razzak, Nina Abdul. “Role-Playing in the Classroom: Gender Differences in Reactions of Bahraini Students.” Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, 2011, pp. 89–102. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/jmiddeastwomstud.7.2.89.
Fredrik Barth, ‘Sohar: Culture and Society in an Omani Town’, 1983.
Siegfried, Nikolaus A. “Legislation and Legitimation in Oman: The Basic Law.” Islamic Law and Society, vol. 7, no. 3, 2000, pp. 359–397. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3399272.
Robert Rotburg, ‘Oman Offers a Lesson of Stability to the Arab World’, The Globe and Mail, 14 Nov 2018.
Jeremy Jones, and Nicholas Ridout. “Democratic Development in Oman.” Middle East Journal, vol. 59, no. 3, 2005, pp. 376–392. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4330154.
 Connor D. Elliot, 2018. Pages 159-163.
 Yenigun, Cuneyt, and Hakan Akbulut, 2017. Page 15.
 Sebastian Castelier, ‘Oman’s Humanitarian Aid to Yemen Also Pragmatic’, Al-Monitor, Jan 9, 2020.
 Ibid, page 12.
 Ibid, page 12.
 Qabus, Sultan, and Judith Miller,1997. Page 18.
 Ibid, page 16.
Allen, Calvin H, and W L. Rigsbee, 2000. Pages 166-171.
 Al-Salimi, Abdilrahman, 2011. Pages 149-150.
 Razzak, Nina Abdul, 2011. Pages 96-99.
 Barth, 1983. Page 97.
 Ibid, pages 110-111.
 Siegfried, Nikolaus A. Pages 359–397.
 Barth, 1983. Page 207.
 Robert Rotburg, ‘Oman Offers a Lesson of Stability to the Arab World’, The Globe and Mail, 14 Nov 2018.
 Jeremy Jones, and Nicholas Ridout, 2005. Page 379